Sifting through an old box with VHS cassettes and a VHS player, I decided to plug the player in and watch the tapes. They still worked and included episodes of my favorite science fiction shows from long ago. I found an old Star Trek: The Next Generation episode which featured a Dyson Sphere. Wow. What a structure? I decided to check it out online.
According to this, it comes form the episode "Relics", where the Enterprise-D stumbles onto a shell that is 200 million kilometers in diameter. A Federation ship could not detect the sphere and crashed into it. The shell completely incases a star that becomes unstable. There are scenes of the Enterprise-D flying in through a massive door. Inside the shell was a large habitat. The Dyson Sphere was named after the 20th Century Freeman Dyson.
On Wikipedia, this mega or all mega structures would surround the sun as a ring, bubble or shell in an effort to maximize the capture of energy from the sun. Dyson speculated it as a "logical consequence of the long-term survival of a technological civilization." And presented this as a reason why finding advanced intelligent ET life would be hard to find. Still, today we only look out into space to find space bodies. Those bodies would need to radiate or reflect radiation. The Dyson sphere prevents this.
Dyson, himself told people that this really was not his idea. It actually came from a concept he read in a book written in 1937 by Olaf Stapledon titled the Star Maker. In Dyson's mind, the sphere should be called the Stapledon sphere. Stapledon wrote a book called Star Maker where the narrator is transported out of his body and explores different planets. The narrator progresses up in level until he meets the Star Maker. Arthur C Clark considered this book to be one of the best works; and, it does seem to inspire him in 2001: the Space Odyssey. One of those worlds is a sphere built around a sun.
This sphere seems to be an extension of a concept by John Desmond Bernal. This man is mostly known for his work in molecular biology. But, he did some writings in science fiction. In 1929, he wrote The World, the Flesh and the Devil; and introduced a concept called the Bernal Sphere. He figured that humans could in the future live permanently in space. This book was also identified by Arthur C. Clark as good scientific prediction. The book also predicts radical changes that will be exerted on the human body and that society will be changed too. One can see this sphere in the video National Geographic Evacuate Earth.
Dyson or Stapledon Sphere (as Dyson did not like the thing named after him) no doubt is an insane engineering endeavor that would take the most time to complete. The feasibility of the idea seems to favor the ring for humans to accomplish. The rest likely cannot be done. There will be problems with other stellar objects. The shell and a tight bubble may be pulled by gravitational forces and finally destroying it. The Bernal sphere can be moved and that makes it more adaptable. One could theorize a large starship designed to move many people. I suppose that is why National Geographic uses the Bernal sphere as a planetary life boat.